Vitamin B Documentary Essential Element of Life
Before continuing with deepintroduction of variousB vitamins and understandinghow important,they are for human boy invarious ways, here is a list ofall eight B vitamins alongwith their short introduction:Vitamin B1Scientific name of Vitamin B1 is thiamine. Vitamin B1 is a coenzyme. Coenzyme can be found in catabolism ofsugars and various amino acids as well. Vitamin B2Vitamin B2 is known as riboflavin as well. Vitamin B2 acts as precursorfor two cofactors. These cofactors handled by VitaminB2 are known as FAD and FMN. These cofactors (FAD andFMN) play an important rolein reaction processes offlavor-protein enzyme. These are also important for activation ofother vitamins . Vitamin B3In scientific research, Vitamin B3 is oftenreferred as niacin or nicotinic acid. It is a well-known precursorfor two coenzymes. These coenzymes are NAD and NADP. NAD and NADP are includedin many metabolic processesthat take place in variousparts of the cell. Vitamin B5Vitamin B5 is known as pantothenic acid. It acts, as precursor for coenzyme A. Coenzyme A is included in process ofmetabolizing many molecules, which is aproof of vitamin B5 being involved inmany metabolizing processes of molecules. Vitamin B6Vitamin B6 is known by multiplenames in scientific researches. These names are pyridoxine,pyridoxal and pyridoxamine. However, they all are same. They are important in manymetabolism reactions. They act as coenzyme inmany of these reactions. Vitamin B7In scientific researches, thesevitamin B7s are known as biotins. Vitamin B7 is a coenzyme thathandles carboxylase enzymes. These carboxylase enzymesare required by fatty acidsand gluconeogenesis intheir respective synthesis(synthesis of Fatty acids andsynthesis of gluconeogenesis). Vitamin B9Vitamin B9 is known as folic acid. This is the only B vitamin among othersthat acts as both precursor and cofactor. As a precursor, it isinvolved in the creation,repair and methylateprocess of DNA. On the other hand, it gets involvedas cofactor in various reactions. It is involved in following reactions:Aiding rapid cell divisionAiding rapid cell growthInfancy process of cellPregnancy of cellVitamin B12Vitamin B12 is commonlyreferred as cobalamins. In the term of vitaminsupplements, vitamin B12 isknown as cyancobalamin andmethylcobalamin also. It is a coenzyme. This vitamin is involved in almostevery kind of cell metabolismincluded in human body, whichmakes it a lot of important. It greatly affects DNAsynthesis and DNA regulation. It is more or less involved in fatty acidmetabolism and amino acid metabolism. These vitamins are givennumbers according tothe concept of B vitaminnumbering scheme. Later on, it was discoveredthat these vitamins are notessential for life and are notmanufactured by the human body. Due to these facts, B vitamins failed tomeet the two qualifiers for a vitamin. These qualifiers areessential for every vitamin. That is the main reason for removing 4, 8,10 and 11 numbers from these vitamins list. They are no longer consideredas B vitamins anymore. You will be introduces to detailedinformation about these Bvitamins, how they affect our bodyboth positively and negatively,various sources of these B vitamins, etc. Molecular Functions of B VitaminsAs described before, each Bvitamin is unique accordingto their chemicalcharacteristics and behavior. This makes them act and involve in separate/ different processes and reactions. In this chapter, involvementand functionality in variousprocesses and reactions of alleight B vitamins are described. It will help you to learn which elementis related with what body parts. Here is the detailed description:Vitamin B1Our body generates chemicalenergy from carbohydratesconsumed by us throughvarious mediums. Vitamin B1 plays an importantrole in this process. It helps our body handleits nerve functionality. Vitamin B1 is also involved in theproduction process of DNAs and RNAs. When vitamin B1 is in its activeform it acts as a coenzyme. Its active coenzyme form is knownas thiamine pyrophosphate . Thiamine pyrophosphate plays an importantrole in the conversion process of pyruvate. In such conversion process ofpyruvate, pyruvate is convertedto acetyl coenzyme A in metabolismof various human organs. Acetyl coenzyme is denoted as COA. Vitamin B2Riboflavin or say vitamin B2is responsible for producingenergy for many organic processesand reactions in human body. It helps our body to produce energyfor electron transport chain. It is also responsible to maintain ourcritic acid cycle by generating energy. It is also involved in thecatabolism of fatty acids. Catabolism process of fatty acidsis known as beta-oxidation. Vitamin B3As described above Vitamin B3that is known as Niacin includestwo sub-structures within itmain body or main structure. These two structures are as following:Nicotinic acidNicotinamideNiacin has two co-anzyme forms:NAD and NADP. Both NAD and NADP play an importantrole in the process of energytransfer reactions for the processessuch as glucose metabolism,fat metabolism and metabolism of alcohol. Even if these both structures are includedin same process, they act differentlyand handle differentelements according to theirunique chemical behaviorand characteristics. During metabolic reactionsthat include NAD,hydrogen and their electronsare carried by NAD. Moreover, it also involvesin the process between thepathway of citric acid cycleand electron transport chain. NADP involves as a coenzymein many reactions and organicprocesses such as lipid synthesisand synthesis of nucleic acid. Vitamin B5Vitamin B5 or say pantothenic acidcomes in the play in the reactionsof fatty acid oxidation andcarbohydrates oxidation processes. Here, it should be noticedthat coenzyme A canbe easily be synthesizedby pantothenic acid. Coenzyme A is involved in thesynthesis of following reactions:Synthesis of amino acidsSynthesis of fatty acidsSynthesis of ketonesSynthesis of cholesterolSynthesis of phospholipidsSynthesis of steroidsHormones synthesisNeurotransmitters synthesisSynthesis of acetylcholineSynthesis of antibodiesVitamin B6The active form of VitaminB6 is known as Pyridoxal5-phosphate that is denotedwith PLP as short form. It serves as cofactor in many reactions. It mainly serves as cofactor to thosereactions that contain enzyme in them. It takes part in any reactionin its active form only. It is involved in aminoacid metabolisms that havebiosynthesis of neurotransmittersinvolved in the process. Inactive form of any kind ofVitamin B6 is merely seentaking part in any chemicalor organic reactions. In any process, it takes part in; vitaminB6 is referred as pyridoxine or pyridoxal. Vitamin B7In chemical or organic processes,vitamin B7 is referred as biotin. Biotin has strong root connectionswith metabolizing since it is involvedin multiple metabolizing processessuch as metabolism of lipids,metabolism of proteins andmetabolism of carbohydrates. Vitamin B or say biotin acts as criticalco-anzyme for following carboxylase:Acetyl COA carboxylasePyruvate COA carboxylaseMethylcrotonyl COA carboxylasePropionyl COA carboxylaseAcetyl COA carboxylase involves itself inacetate synthesis and fatty acid synthesis. Pyruvate COA carboxylase is involvedin the process of gluconeogenesis. Methylcrotonyl COAcarboxylase is responsiblefor metabolizingprocess of leucine. Propionyl COA carboxylase playsa major role in metabolizingenergy, amino acids andmetabolizing cholesterol. Vitamin B7 participates inprocesses and reactionsin both activated andnon-activated form. That makes it the mostactive form of B vitamins. Vitamin B9Vitamin B9 is involved inmany organic and chemicalprocess and reactions ofhuman body as folic acid. In these processes, folicacid is involved in theform of tetrahydrofolate,which acts as co-enzyme. Tetrahydrofolate is denoted with THF. It gets itself involved in metabolismof nucleic acids and amino acids. In such metabolizingprocesses, it is responsiblefor transferringsingle carbon units. THF is also involved inpyramiding nucleotide synthesis. It means that it is essential forthe process of cell division. It is even more important in thestates such as pregnancy and infancy. It is because during thesestates of pregnancy andinfancy, cells grow rapidlythan normal rate of growth. Folic acid also helps in aprocess called erythropoiesis,which is the process ofproducing red blood cells. Vitamin B12Vitamin B12 is included inthe cellular metabolizingprocess such as carbohydrates,proteins and lipids. It is an essential element in bone marrow. Bone marrow is responsible for producingblood cells, which indirectlymakes vitamin B12 important inthe production of blood cells. It is also essential for nervesheaths and protein activations. It also acts as co-anzymein many processes. It acts intermediary in the metabolizingprocess of methionine synthase reaction. Methylcabalamin is also involvedin the very same process. Methylmalonyl is also involved in thevery same process in mutase reaction. Vitamin B is also involvedwith adenosylcobalamin. In this chapter, you havebeen introduced withthe basic functionalityof each B vitamin memberin various chemical and organcircumstances, processes and reactions. Until now, you may havevery well realized that howimportant and essential Bvitamins are for human body. In subsequent chapters, youwill learn about variousdeficiencies and side effectsof various B vitamins. Deficiencies in B VitaminsGeneral meaning of vitamindeficiency is that the effectsour body suffers if we lackof some specific vitamin. Several vitamin deficiencydiseases are likely to be facesif the B vitamin level goesdown than sufficient one. Other than these deficiencies, lackof B vitamins may also result insymptoms that are not included or arenot a part of the main deficiencies. These symptoms can be takenas the indication thateventually, one is much likelyto face the main deficiency. Here are the descriptive details relatedto each member of the set of B vitamins:Vitamin B1Lack of B1 may cause you beriberi. However, there will be many symptoms beforethe actual effect begun to take place. Such symptoms includes weight lose,emotional unbalance/mood swings. One may also suffer fromWernicke’s encephalopathy,it is simple the impairedsensory of perception. Limbs are much likely to be weakand throw a lot of pain to you. You may suffer non-regularheartbeats now and then. One affected with lack of B1may also suffer from edema. Edema is the swelling of bodilytissues, which may causeone a lot of pain andeventually increasing weakness. In advanced cases, heart failureand death are much likelypossible (only if pre-symptomsare ignored at a great level). In some rare cases, one may evensuffer Karsakoff’s syndrome. Dementia holds thecharacteristics of amnesia. Compensatory confabulation is possible too. Vitamin B2Deficiency related to Vitamin B2 may causeone to suffer from ariboflavinosis. There are various noticeable symptoms too. Cheilosis will catch yourattention before anything. It simply means cracked lips. One affected by thisdeficiency may feel that heeventually became moresensitive for sunlight. Even light sunlight will simplyaffect one as if it were too bright. Angular cheilitis may also occur. However, it is greatly unnoticeable. Glossitis is another great symptom. It will cause your tongue to losetaste as low or great level. It can also cause you to feelbad taste in everything. This is not a serious issue andcan be cured easily but thesewill be the worst hours you areever likely to experience. This deficiency greatly affectsorgans related to our mouth. You may feel your mouth dry often. Hyperemia and edema of pharyngeal or oralmucosa are also noticeable symptoms. Vitamin B3Deficiency related withB3 can cause multipleresults such astryptophan and pellagra. Symptoms can be observed as both mental andphysical changes, most of them negative. Aggression is the biggest and the worstsymptom of vitamin B3 deficiency. One that is affectedby such symptom may beaffected emotionally evenwith smaller things. He will be angry quickly and sad too. Every change in his emotionalstate will be quick as hell. He may also suffer throughdermatitis, insomnia,weakness, mentalconfusion and diarrhea. If symptoms manage to stayunnoticed, advance statewill eventually result asdeath because of dementia. Vitamin B5Deficiency caused by lack ofvitamin B5 is quite uncommon. It will cause one acne and paresthesia. They are not that seriousand can be aided easilywithout requiring toomuch medical attention. Vitamin B6Effects of deficiency related to vitaminB6 are as small as they were for B5. It can cause much seborrhoeic dermatitissuch as eruptions, pink eye and epilepsy. These maladies are easily cured witha little bit of medical attention. Vitamin B7Deficiency cause due to vitamin B7 doesnot throw any major symptoms in adults. However, it should be noticedthat they are responsible forcausing impaired growth andneurological disorders in infants. One needs to be very carefulabout it since therewere be no indications orsymptoms that will help youto notice if someone is affected bythis particular deficiency or not. It can cause multiplecarboxylase deficiency. It is more complex than its name is. It is an inborn and possiblepermanent error of metabolism. If not cured within time, itcan cause biotin deficiency. This affect is highly un-noticeablebecause dietary biotin intake tendsto be normal even when someone isbeing affected by such deficiency. Vitamin B9Such deficiency may causeone macrocytic anemia. It can also cause multiplelevels of homocysteine. If a pregnant woman is affectedby such deficiency, itcan lead to permanent birthdefects in upcoming child. This makes it very seriousor important for pregnantwomen to maintain their dietto avoid such deficiency. The effects that childwill born with may evenbe incurable since theywill be birth effects. Vitamin B12Deficiency caused by Vitamin B12lead to multiple serious issues. It can cause one macrocytic anemia,elevated acid effects, homocysteine. Another serious effect ofsuch deficiency is peripheralneuropathy that causes temporaryor permanent organs failure. Memory loss and other relateddeficits are also possible. Memory loss will begin as shorter memorylack and eventually lead to greater stages. These symptoms are rarelyencountered in younger people. Elders have greater chancedof falling in such situation. These symptoms are curable at some stage. However, they are often ignored since mostpeople consider them as a sign of old age. These effects will be felt asresults of pernicious anemia. Symptoms of mania andpsychosis can also be felt. In rare cases,effects of paralysis would be faced. Side Effects of B VitaminsTaking large doses of B vitaminscan cause side effects too. Since, B vitamins are water-solubleB vitamins that are eliminated inurine can produce transient sideeffects if consumed too much of them. Feeling tired, restlessness, nauseaand insomnia are some of themost common side effects noticedon overdone of B vitamins. These side effects come because of eitherdietary supplements or not foods tuffs. It is not necessary thatover consumptions is theonly reason for overleveling these elements. Sometimes, internal changescaused by other deficiencies mayalso be a reason for increasinglevel of these B vitamins. In previous subsequent chapters, you wereintroduced to various functions of Bvitamins and number of deficiencies causeddue to lack of these very same B vitamins. In this chapter, you will learnabout various side effects thatare caused by over-increasedlevel of particular B vitamin. Here is the complete listof all eight B vitaminsalong with the side effectsthey cause to human body:Vitamin B1Side effects caused by vitamin B1 can varyfrom no known toxicity to oral intake. One can suffer anaphylaxisif he was given high-dose ofthiamine injectionsinto vein or muscles. Such side effects can only cause ifdoses of thiamine were larger than thequantity that an average human body canabsorb according to its oral intake. This capability may varyfrom one person to another. It means that possibility ofsuffering from these side effectsis much likely to be differentfor every next person. Some may feel it too serious and major. On the other hand, some will feel itas any normal/average deficiency. Vitamin B2There is no known toxicityfrom oral intake of anyneither limited humanbody nor animal studies. There is only one real evidence isavailable for such side effects. It is associated with riboflavin. It is found in studies of vitro. A Vitro study shows that production ofreactive oxygen species being exposed whenriboflavin or say vitamins B2s reachesto intense visible and UV light level. It will cause you a lotof pain and restlessness. You will feel weak even for a normal walk. Vitamin B33000 mg/day for nicotinamide and1500 mg/day for nicotinic acids areconsidered intense level for vitaminB3 related to an average human body. Such intense level cancause nausea and vomiting. It also throws some symptomsrelated to liver toxicity. These symptoms can reachto intense level if theyare ignored as food poisoningor normal acidity. One affected by these symptoms mayalso face glucose intolerance. It will eventually leadyou to ocular effects. These ocular effects arefound to be reversiblein some cases andnon-reversible in other. It vitamin B was overduein the form of nicotinicacid; it may result asvasodilatory effects. These effects are well known as flushing. These effects include various deficiencies,such as redness over the skin. Such redness if ignored, will eventuallylead one to major itching problems. Such Itching is curable but require alot of time to be completely cured. In some cases, it is foundthat this itching comes backtime to time if curing stopseven for a short period. One can never know if it iscompletely cured or not. Thus, therapists suggest keeping the curingon until they are completely satisfied. Such itching can cause tinglingand sensation of mild burning. This does not only harm yourskin, but also mentally. It will cause you a lotof headache and pruritus. It will increase intracranial bloodflow and throw a lot of pain to you. To avoid all these symptoms and majoreffects, medical practitionerssuggest that one should maintain levelof niacin at 2000 mg per day doses. Such doses may consumein time-release format. It is important because it will help tocombat arterial development of plaque. However, it only works in cases that havelipids quantity of a noticeable high level. Vitamin B9Recommended level for vitamin B9 in theform of folic acid is 1 mg per day. If daily doses get higherthan this, it is consideredan intense level ofvitamin B9 or folic acid. Such level ends upmasking various B12deficiencies as describedin previous chapters. Such deficiencies can causeneurological damage. Despite of being a curable damage, insome cases, it was found that thisdamage remained permanent, often referredas permanent neurological damage. This makes it worst side effectscompared to other B vitamins. Vitamin B3 has more sideeffects than other B vitamins. However, one can never facethat many effects all together. That makes side effectscaused by vitamin B9even dangerous than thosecaused by vitamin B3. Vitamin B12There is no suggested amount ofvitamin B12 to be consumed daily. It varies from one human to anotheraccording to their capacityof body to absorb the vitamin B12in the form of cyanocobalamin. If a human body consumes more vitaminB12 compared to its unique capabilityor capacity it can suffer from skinlesions and spinal lesions as well. It will eventually leadto major skin problems. These problems will begin asnormal acne and light itching. Later they will eventually turninto rashes and intense itching. Problem will be even worse ifthese problems are on face. Skin of our face is more sensitivethan other parts of our body. It will make it harder to cure the skinproblems located near face and neck areas. It is noticeable thatcausalities caused by theseproblems are yet to beconclusively established. Every coin has two sides. B vitamins have their own cons alongsidewith their advantages or pros. Until now, you are introduced withtheir advantages, deficienciesand various side effectscaused due to their overdose. You might have noticed that somevitamins are ignored in this list orthis particular chapter describingside effects of various B vitamins. B vitamins that are notincluded in this chapterare vitamin B5, vitaminB6 and vitamin B7. These are not included sincethey do not cause any major sideeffects or these effects are yetto be studies and not known. In upcoming chapter, you willbe introduced to varioussources that serve as majorsources of B vitamins. After getting introduces withall the details about various Bvitamins and knowing that howimportant they can be for us,one definitely needs to know fromwhere these vitamins can be acquired. This is the only reason these sources aredescribe in their own separate chapter. Sources of Various B VitaminsCompletely unprocessedfoods are considered mainresource for almost everykind of B vitamins. Carbohydrates such as sugarand white flour are bestexamples of foods todemonstrate this statementFor instance, processed sugar andwhite flour have lower levelof B vitamins when compared totheir unprocessed counterparts. It is noticed that unprocessedcounterparts of these carbohydrateshave more quantity of B vitaminscompared to their processed form. To resolve this issue in manycountries many vitaminB supplements like thiamine,riboflavin, niacin and folicacid are added to processedwhite flour to maintainthe level of B vitamins. It is done the same with sugarand other known carbohydratesthat are majorly used asor in daily food itemsWhen these elements are addedto processed white flour,such flour is labeled as“Enriched Flour” on food labels. This label helps consumerknow of the maintainedvitamin level in the productthey are about to buy. Some countries also madelaws to make such processcompulsory, so that theconsumers get healthy foodthat has sufficient level of B vitamins andother vitamins too, without wasting any. B vitamins are found incertain type of meats. Such meat includes turkey, tuna and liver. Following is a list of majorsources of B vitamins:Pulses and beansWhole grainsPotatoesBananasChili peppersTempehNutritional yeastBrewer’s yeastMolassesSince yeast is used to preserveand process beer, beer canalso be considered an averageresource for B vitamins. B vitamins are there in beer,at higher or lower level. However, their bioavailability inbeer can vary between poor to good. It is because various B vitamins includingvitamin B1, vitamin B3, vitaminB2, vitamin B9 and vitamin B7 can inhibitabsorption if ethanol is observed. Moreover, studies also showthat beer or any otherkind of alcoholic beveragesare over consumed,they will result in net deficit of allthose B vitamins described above. Not only this, over consuming thosealcoholic beverages also increaseshealth risks and deficiencies relatedwith lack of those B vitamins. When you are talking aboutvarious resources ofB vitamins, vitamin B12is greatly noticeable. A great characteristicof this vitamin B12 isthat it is rarely or notfound in plant products. This makes vitamin B12 a greatconcern for vegan or vegetarians. However, to resolve thisproblem and save vegetariansfrom suffering deficienciescaused by vitamin B12,many planted food distributorsand manufacturersreport B12 externallyadded in their product. Such declaration alsocauses confusion aboutlegit or say rootsources of vitamin B12. That makes it hard to figure out whatresources actually yield vitamin B12. US Pharmacopeia method of measuringvitamin B12 content in some element isanother reason for raising such confusionabout root resources of vitamin B12. Since, this US-Pharmacopeia method doesnot measure the B2 vitamin directly. Instead of measuring the contentof vitamin B12 directly,it measures the response ofa bacterium to the food. This technique is considered validbecause the chemical variantsof vitamin B12 present in plantsources are active bacteria. However, these bacteria cannot be usedby human body in their original form. It means that plantedproducts do have content ofvitamin B12 present in theform of active bacteria. However, they are not considered as asource for vitamin B12 because the contentof vitamin B12 is of no use to humanbody in the form of active bacteria. It presence does not matters at all. This phenomenon is not limitedfor planted foods only. It also causes over-reporting of vitaminB12 in other kind of foods too. These foods mainly includefood items that holdscontent of vitamin B12 in theform of active bacteria. Dietary supplements areanother popular resource forincreasing intake ofsomeone’s vitamin B level. Almost every energy drinkhas elements of vitaminB alongside with multiplemain ingredients. These energy drinks areoften marketed sayingthat they possess highamount of B vitamins. These vitamin B drinks also claimthat consuming these drinks will helpconsumers to get through a rough workingday without feeling restless or tense. They also claim that thesedrinks increase our calmness. These drinks are highlycriticized by many nutritionists. They pointed out that theminimum required amount of Bvitamins can be easilyacquired through daily diet. Thus, they believe thatthere is no requirement ofwasting valuable money andtime over these drinks. However, they also said that there are noside effects of these drinks unless you wantto waste money on a think that gives youno advantage over those who don’t buy it. They would just help you to gain slightlymore energy from what food you eat. As described many times before Bvitamins are soluble in water. Vitamins that are ingested usingsupplements are known as excess vitamins. Excess B vitamins are excretedreadily in most cases. Their individual absorption and use inmetabolism may vary on a large scale. The elder people and athletesmay suffer from lessabsorption and increasedneeds of energy production. In such case, they require supplementsfor intake of B12 and other B vitamins. When someone sufferingfor deficiency thatwere caused due to lackof various B vitamins,the deficiencies can bereversed by giving quickdose of that very same Bvitamin through injection. Diabetics are also giventhis kind of dose; letthem be type-1 diabeticsor type-2 diabetics. Women that are planning ababy are often suggested toincrease folic acid intake assupplement in their daily diet. In this chapter, you learntabout various sourcesthat are used to gainvarious B vitamins. In upcoming chapter, youwill learn about variouscompounds that once were oneof the various B vitamins. However, later on, it wasdiscovered that these compound donot satisfy all the requirementsthat a vitamin needs to. Thus, they are no longer consideredas a part of B vitamin family. Related Compounds to B VitaminsIn this chapter, we are going to learnabout various compounds of B vitamins. These were one of the various B vitamins. However, they are no longerpart of set of B vitamins. There are only eight B vitamins present. Almost every related compoundis listed in this chapter. In this list, you will noticethat many compounds are denotedas vitamins since they wereonce believed to be vitamins. Since they are no longerconsidered as vitamins theyare the reason for gaps inthe serious of B vitamins. For example, vitamin B5 comes aftervitamin B3, there is no vitamin B4. Some of these compounds areno use of human bodies. However, they are essential for diets thatother organisms or say species consume. Some of them are consideredto have no nutrition atall, and some even act astoxic in certain conditions. Now let us introduce youto these compounds:Vitamin B4Vitamin B4 can be found in the formsof choline, adenine or carnitine. Choline can be synthesized by human body. However, despite beingessential nutrient they arenot useful in maintainingfood health of human body. Adenine is a nucleobaasethat is also synthesizedby human body still noof use like choline. Carnitine is discovered to beessential for certain kind of worms. However, they are no use of human. Vitamin B8This vitamin B8 can be found in theform of adenosine monophosphate . Adenosine monophosphate thatis denoted as AMP in shortform is sometimes alsoreferred as adenylic acid. In some rare cases, vitamin B8 is canbe also found in the form of inositoal. Vitamin B10In chemical terms, vitamin B10 is referredas para-aminobenzoic acid . It is a chemical componentof molecule of folate. Molecule of folate is producedby certain plants and bacteria. This acidic vitamin B10 can be foundin more than one type of food. Some of the most famous exampleof vitamin B10 is UV-blockingsunscreen applied to theskin to avoid sub steins. Vitamin B10 sometimes is appliedorally in specific medical conditions. Vitamin B11Vitamin B11 is often found in theform of pteryl-hepta-glutamic acid. It is known as chickgrowth factor in chemicalterms and denoted asPHGA in short forms. This is the only compound that has asimilar or say identical compound. It is known as vitamin BCor vitamin B conjugate. Both vitamin B11 and vitamin BCpossess almost same chemicalbehavior and characteristicsdespite of some differences. Vitamin B13Vitamin B13 can be found inthe form of orotic acid. It has been denied as avitamin B member at verybeginning of the researchrelated to B vitamins. Thus, there is no noticeable informationavailable related to this compoundssince it is considered as an acidonly, that too from the beginning. Vitamin B14Vitamin B14 can be foundin following forms:Cell proliferantAnti-anemiaRat growth factorAntitumor pterinThese all were researched andnamed by Earl R. Norris. These compounds are isolated fromhuman urine at the rate of 0. 33ppm. Later it was discovered that theyare even isolated from human blood. However, they were later denied to bea vitamin since they were no furtherevidences was found to prove it as acomplete member of B vitamins family. Vitamin B15Vitamin B15 is also known aspangamic acid and pangamate. It was considered as dietarysupplement and medical drug. Later on it was found to be unsafeand rejected to be a vitamin byUS food and drug administrationand by many other countries too. Vitamin B16Vitamin B16 was known asdimenthylglycine that is denoted as DMG. DMG is synthesized by any average humanbody with the use of or by choline. Vitamin B17This is the only poisonous compound. It is known as amygdalin. In some terms, it is alsoreferred as nitrilosides. This element can be foundin several kinds of plants. One of the major sources ofthis element is apricot pits. It is also majorly extractedfrom fruit kernels. These elements can be hydrolyzedby many intense enzyme forms. Lower doses of these elements can beserved as medical drug but high doses can beproven poisonous for human body. That is why it is no longer consideredas a medical drug or even a vitamin. Since it was used as medicaldrug for a short period of time,many nutritionists claimthat it can still be used incancer treatment and evenfor keeping cancer away. These claims are yet to be proved since itis hard to find practical proof for them.