Diabetes Type 1 & 2

DIABETES TYPE I

diabetes

diabetes

Type I diabetes is a disease that develops when the body does not make enough insulin. The food we eat breaks down into glucose and is transported by the bloodstream. Insulin, a hormone released by the pancreas, moves the glucose from the bloodstream into the body cells. Glucose (also called blood sugar) provides the cells with the energy to do their jobs. Diabetes is diagnosed when too much glucose remains in the blood due to lack of insulin.

Type I diabetes usually occurs in children and young adults less than 30 years old. It develops quickly, sometimes within days.

When the body stops making enough insulin, glucose builds up in the blood and cannot get into the body cells. People may have very high blood glucose levels when their diabetes is first diagnosed. High blood glucose is called hyperglycemia.

A person with hyperglycemia may have:

increased thirst and hunger

frequent urination

weakness and fatigue

blurry vision or

unplanned weight loss

Type I diabetes is controlled by:

taking insulin shots every day

carefully monitoring blood sugar levels

eating healthy foods and

exercising

Uncontrolled diabetes causes many problems, such as:

heart and kidney disease

blindness

stroke

nerve damage and

blood flow problems

Keeping diabetes under control reduces the chances of these problems. Call your healthcare provider if you, or a family member, have any of the symptoms of diabetes.

DIABETES TYPE II: ADULT ONSET

Type II diabetes, also called adult onset diabetes, is a disease that develops when the body cannot use the insulin it makes. A gland in the body, called the pancreas, makes insulin. The food we eat is broken down into glucose and is transported by the bloodstream. Insulin moves the glucose from the bloodstream into body cells. Glucose (also called blood sugar) provides the cells with the energy to do their jobs. Diabetes is diagnosed when too much glucose remains in the blood.

 

 

Fourteen to 16 million Americans have diabetes. Eighty to 85 percent of the people with diabetes have Type II, or adult onset diabetes. Type II diabetes usually happens after age 40, especially in overweight, inactive people. It runs in families and is more common in some races than others. Type II diabetes develops slowly, usually over many years.

When the body cannot use insulin, glucose builds up in the blood and cannot be used by body cells. People may have high blood glucose levels when their diabetes is first diagnosed. High blood glucose is called hyperglycemia.

A person with hyperglycemia may have:

increased thirst and hunger

frequent urination

weakness and fatigue

blurry vision or

unplanned weight loss

Type II diabetes is sometimes controlled by losing weight, or making food and activity changes. Some people will need to take pills or insulin shots.

Uncontrolled diabetes causes many problems, such as:

heart and kidney disease

blindness

stroke

nerve damage and

blood flow problems

Keeping diabetes under control reduces the chances of these problems. Call your healthcare provider if you, or a family member, have any of the symptoms of diabetes.

HYPERGLYCEMIA

Hyperglycemia means having too much sugar in the blood. Sugar in the blood is also called blood glucose. The food we eat breaks down into glucose and is transported by the bloodstream to the body’s cells. The cells use the glucose as energy.

Hyperglycemia is caused by:

too little insulin

too much food

too little exercise

getting sick

stress or

some medicines

The symptoms are:

extreme thirst and frequent urination

unexplained weight loss

tiredness or fatigue

infections that do not heal

stomach pain, nausea, or vomiting and

headache or blurry vision

If untreated, hyperglycemia can be life threatening. Treatment may include:

 

dietary changes

exercising regularly and

medications such as those needed for people with diabetes

Type I diabetes requires insulin. Type II may be treated with oral medications that increase the body’s ability to use the insulin produced, but sometimes require insulin as well. Both types require diet and exercise management.

Long-term hyperglycemia causes damage to muscles, nerves, and vital organs. This damage can result in:

heart or kidney disease

blindness

nerve damage and

damage to the blood vessels

People with diabetes need to monitor their blood sugar levels every day to protect themselves from hyperglycemia. This allows them to make immediate changes in their treatment plan when needed.

HYPOGLYCEMIA (INSULIN SHOCK)

Hypoglycemia means low blood sugar. It occurs when someone has too much insulin or not enough glucose in the blood. It can also be caused by too much exercise. In addition, alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine, or liquor can cause blood sugar to drop. Hypoglycemia is also called insulin shock or insulin reaction in a diabetic.

Hypoglycemia is very uncommon in people without diabetes. Low blood sugar is more common in people taking insulin than in those who use pills to manage their diabetes. It rarely happens when diabetes is treated without medications. Everyone with diabetes should know how to recognize and treat low blood sugar.

Early signs are:

shakiness

sweating

hunger

dizziness

blurry vision and

poor concentration

If untreated, the patient may develop:

headache

confusion

mood changes and

coma or seizure

Blood sugar levels should be checked when any of these signs and symptoms are experienced. Treat for possible hypoglycemia, even if the blood sugar level cannot be checked right away. Always carry high-sugar snacks that can be used to treat the condition.

Your healthcare provider will teach you how to treat hypoglycemia. Self-treatment can include eating or drinking:

6 ounces of regular soda

5 or 6 lifesaver candies

3 glucose tablets, available at any drugstore.

Call for emergency help, if a known diabetic is unconscious and unable to be roused. After self-treatment, the person should feel better in about 15 minutes. If it is more than an hour until the next meal, a snack, such as a peanut butter sandwich, should be eaten.

NUTRITION TIPS FOR DIABETICS

Treatment of diabetes is centered on controlling the level of glucose or sugar that is in the bloodstream. This is necessary for diabetics who take pills, use insulin shots, or do both. Eating the right foods is an important way that diabetics can help prevent their blood sugar from being too low or too high.

There is no single diabetic diet that works for everyone. People who have diabetes should work closely with their healthcare providers to create a diet plan that matches their overall health and treatment goals and fits with their lifestyle.

In general, people with diabetes should follow the same guidelines for good nutrition as everyone else:

Limit fat intake to less than 30 percent of your calories each day. Eat more polyunsaturated fats than saturated fats (fats that are solid at room temperature). Ways to reduce fat intake include choosing lean cuts of meat and trimming extra fat, eating more fish and poultry (without the skin), and drinking low-fat or skim milk.

Plan your diet to include 20 percent of the calories from protein sources, such as dairy products, meats, poultry, vegetables, and fish. Remember that some of these foods can be high fat, so choose carefully with the advice of your doctor or dietitian. If you have kidney disease, you may need to limit protein to 10 percent of calories.

Get up to 50 percent of total daily calories from complex carbohydrates. Foods such as beans, vegetables, and grains (such as breads, cereals, noodles, and rice) have a strong affect on blood sugar. Eating the same amount of these foods from day to day can help keep blood sugar at a steady level.

Plan meals at consistent times, so that blood sugar is more stable. This also helps insulin work better.

Check your blood sugar levels to learn how certain foods and beverages affect you. This will help you make food choices that will keep your blood sugar as close to normal as possible, and will help you know how to adjust your insulin.

Use alcohol with caution and never on an empty stomach. Alcohol can cause very low blood sugar.

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